History of Dairy
The word dairy refers
to milk-based products, derivatives and processes, and the animals and workers
involved in their production: for example dairy cattle, dairy goat.
A dairy farm produces
milk and a dairy factory processes it into a variety of dairy products.
These establishments constitute the global dairy industry, a component of the food industry.
process the raw milk they receive from farmers so as to extend its marketable
life. Two main types of processes are employed: heat treatment to ensure the
safety of milk for human consumption and to lengthen its shelf-life, and
dehydrating dairy products such as butter, hard cheese and milk powders so that
they can be stored.
Is a pale
liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
It is the primary source of nutrition for
infant mammals (including humans who breastfeed) before they are able to digest other
types of food. Early-lactation milk
which carries the mother's antibodies to
its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases. It contains many other
nutrients including protein and lactose.
As an agricultural product,
milk is extracted
from non-human mammals during or soon after pregnancy. Dairy farms
produced about 730 million tons of milk in 2011, from 260 million dairy
cows. India is the world's largest producer of milk, and is the leading
exporter of skimmed milk powder, yet it exports few other milk
products. The ever increasing rise in domestic demand for dairy products
and a large demand-supply gap could lead to India being a net importer of dairy
products in the future. The United States, India, China and Brazil are the
world's largest exporters of milk and milk products, China and Russia were
the world's largest importers of milk and milk products until 2016 when both
countries became self-sufficient, contributing to a worldwide glut of milk.
world, there are more than six billion consumers of milk and milk products.
Over 750 million people live in dairy farming households.
Is a dairy product composed
of the higher-butterfat layer
skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, the fat, which is less
dense, will eventually rise to the top. In the industrial production of cream,
this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called
"separators". In many countries, cream is sold in several
grades depending on the total butterfat content. Cream can be dried to a powder
for shipment to distant markets. Cream has high levels of saturated fat.
Cream skimmed from
milk may be called "sweet cream" to distinguish it from whey cream
skimmed from whey,
a by-product of cheese-making.
Whey cream has a lower fat content and tastes more salty, tangy and
"cheesy". In many countries, cream is usually sold partially
fermented: sour cream, crème fraîche, and so on.
Cream has many
culinary uses in sweet, bitter, salty and tangy dishes.
by cattle (particularly Jersey cattle)
grazing on natural pasture often
contains some natural carotenoid pigments
derived from the plants they
eat; this gives the cream a slight yellow tone, hence the name of the
yellowish-white color, cream.
This is also the origin of butter's
yellow color. Cream from goat's
milk, or from cows fed indoors on grain or grain-based pellets, is white.
Is a dairy product containing
up to 80% butterfat (in
commercial products) which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in
some regions and liquid when warmed. It is made by churning fresh
or fermented cream or milk to
separate the butterfat from the buttermilk.
It is generally used as a spread on
plain or toasted bread products and a condiment on
cooked vegetables, as well as in cooking,
such as baking, sauce making,
and pan frying.
Butter consists of butterfat,
milk proteins and
water, and in some types, added salt. Butter may also be sold with added
flavourings, such as garlic butter.
made from cows'
milk, butter can also be manufactured from the milk of other mammals,
including sheep, goats, buffalo,
and yaks. Salt such
as dairy salt, flavorings and preservatives are
sometimes added to butter. Rendering butter
produces clarified butter or ghee,
which is almost entirely butterfat.
Butter is a
water-in-oil emulsion resulting
from an inversion of the cream; in a water-in-oil emulsion, the milk proteins
are the emulsifiers. Butter remains a solid when refrigerated,
but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature,
and melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32–35 °C (90–95 °F). The
density of butter is 911 g/L (0.950 lb. per US pint). It generally
has a pale yellow color,
but varies from deep yellow to nearly white. Its unmodified color is dependent
on the animals' feed and genetics but is commonly manipulated with food colorings in
the commercial manufacturing process, most commonly annatto or carotene.
Cheese is another
product made from milk. Whole milk is reacted to form curds that
can be compressed, processed and stored to form cheese. In countries where milk
is legally allowed to be processed without pasteurization,
a wide range of cheeses can be made using the bacteria naturally in the milk.
In most other countries, the range of cheeses is smaller and the use of
artificial cheese curing is greater. Whey is
also the byproduct of this process. Some people with lactose intolerance are surprisingly able to eat certain types
of cheese. This is because some traditionally made hard cheeses,
and soft ripened cheeses may create less reaction than the equivalent amount of
milk because of the processes involved. Fermentation and higher fat content
contribute to lesser amounts of lactose. Traditionally made Emmental or Cheddar might
contain 10% of the lactose found in whole milk. In addition, the aging methods
of traditional cheeses (sometimes over two years) reduce their lactose content
to practically nothing. Commercial cheeses, however, are often
manufactured by processes that do not have the same lactose-reducing
properties. Ageing of some cheeses is governed by regulations; in other
cases there is no quantitative indication of degree of ageing and concomitant
lactose reduction, and lactose content is not usually indicated on labels.
Is a food produced
by bacterial fermentation of milk. The
bacteria used to make yogurt are known as "yogurt cultures".
Fermentation of lactose by
these bacteria produces lactic acid,
which acts on milk protein to
give yogurt its texture and
characteristic tart flavor Cow’s milk is
commonly available worldwide, and, as such, is the milk most commonly used to
make yogurt. Milk from water buffalo, goats, ewes, mares, camels,
and yaks is
also used to produce yogurt where available locally. Milk used may be
homogenized or not (milk distributed in many parts of the world is homogenized);
both types may be used, with substantially different results.
Yogurt is produced
using a culture of Lactobacillus
delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus bacteria. In addition, other lactobacilli and bifid bacteria are
also sometimes added during or after culturing yogurt. Some countries require
yogurt to contain a certain amount of colony-forming units of bacteria; in
China, for example, the requirement for the number of lactobacillus bacteria is
at least 1 × 106CFU per milliliter.
To produce yogurt,
milk is first heated, usually to about 85 °C (185 °F), to denature the milk proteins so that they set together
rather than form curds. After heating, the milk is allowed to cool to about
45 °C (113 °F). The bacterial culture is mixed in, and a
temperature of 45 °C (113 °F) is maintained for four to twelve hours
to allow fermentation.
(Derived from earlier iced
cream or cream ice) Is a sweetened frozen food typically
eaten as a snack or dessert.
It is usually made from dairy products,
such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or
other ingredients and flavors.
It is typically sweetened with sugar or sugar substitutes.
Typically, flavourings and colourings are
added in addition to stabilizers. The mixture is stirred to incorporate air
spaces and cooled below the freezing point of water to prevent detectable ice crystals from
forming. The result is a smooth, semi-solid foam that is solid at very low
temperatures (<35 °F / 2 °C). It becomes more malleable as its
Is a range of dairy products used in cuisines
of Iranian, Turkish, Mongolian, Central Asian, Transcaucasian,
and the Levantine peoples. Kashk is made from drained yogurt (in
particular, drained qatiq)
or drained sour milk by forming it and letting it dry. It can be
made in a variety of forms, including rolled into balls, sliced into strips,
and formed into chunks.Foods based on barley broth,
bread, or flour; and foods based on cereals combined
with curdled milk. Kashk is a sort of gruel of
fresh cheese. It is eaten plain, but can be used other ways. For example,
it can be dissolved in water and eaten like yogurt. In western parts of
Azerbaijan, it's customary to dissolve qurut in water by hand and use the sauce
with xəngəl, the traditional Azerbaijani lasagna-type dish. Qurut dissolved in water
is a primary ingredient of qurutob, a traditional Persian dish in Tajik, Afghan and Iranian cuisine
and thought of by some as the national dish of Tajikistan. One of the main
dishes in Afghanistan is kichree qurut, made with mung beans, rice and
qurut dissolved in water. It is sometimes salted,
and in Inner Mongolia can be flavoured and distributed as candy.
Is a savory yogurt-based
beverage. It is popular in Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan,
Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, North Caucasus, the Balkans, Afghanistan and
Lebanon. It is made by mixing yoghurt and chilled or iced water and
has been variously described as "diluted yogurt". It is
sometimes carbonated and
seasoned with mint. Salt (and
sometimes pepper) is added and dried mint or pennyroyal can
be mixed in as well. One variation includes diced cucumbers to provide a
crunchy texture to the beverage. Some varieties of doogh have